THE SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

 

Before describing the curriculum of Darul Uloom it will be apt to relate a short history of the syllabi of Arabic sciences so that the academic tendencies, right from the first decade of Islam to the present day, may be briefly estimated.

In the prophetic era education began with the Holy Quran. During the caliphate of Hazrat Umar special arrangement was made, along with the teaching of the Quran, for the teaching and learning, and dissemination and publication of the Hadith lore also. As time rolled on and educational needs multiplied, as per necessity, disciplines also continued to be added. Till the middle of the second century-Hijri, arts and sciences were restricted to the Quran, Hadith, Fiqh and the Arabic poetry. Thereafter, till  the end of the fourth century Hijri, which is called the age of invention and redaction, the invention of different arts and sciences and their translations came into being along with civilization growth and progress, and as per necessity some arts also began to be taught. As such, Hadith, Tafsir, Fiqh, Principles of Fiqh, Grammar and Syntax, Lexicon, Arabic poetry and History were considered the subjects for scholastic education of that period. Medicine, Astrology, Astronomy and some other Greek sciences can also be added to this syllabi.

Between the fifth and the seventh century Hijri the science of Dialectics or Scholastic Theology was established through Imam Ghazali and for the support of which, besides the afore-said sciences, poetic sciences like Logic, Philosophy, etc. also became a necessary ingredient in the curriculum of the Islamic schools and universities.

Though these sciences were current, more or less, in all the Islamic lands, nevertheless the impact of national, local and ethnic peculiarities was inevitable in different countries. Since Arab families had settled in countries like Egypt, Syria, etc. in great numbers, giving predominance to Arab leanings in these countries, sciences like Tafsir, Hadith and Asmaur-Rijal were comparatively paid more heed to. In Andalusia (Spain), literature, poetry and history had acquired great ascendancy. In Iran, logic arid philosophy were predominant, and in Khurasan and Transoxiana, Fiqh, Principles of Fiqh and Tasawwuf were more in the vogue. At the same time, however, due to influences of the milieu and demands of the environs, the process of change and alteration in the syllabi has often taken place in different periods in one and the same country.

Although the Muslims had reached India in the very first century Hijri and a pretty good increase took place in their number in the beginning of the fifth century Hijri, that is, during Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi's period, when besides Sindh, the area of the Punjab too had been included in the Islamic dominions, the period of their real influence begins from the beginning of seventh century Hijri, that is from the regime of Sultan Shahabuddin Ghuri (597/1191 - 602/1205). It was that period when in Khurasan, Transoxiana, etc. though, along with Tafsir and Hadith, Grammar and Syntax, Rhetoric's and Literature, Jurisprudence, Logic, Scholastic Theology and Tasawwuf were being considered the standard learning. Jurisprudence and the Principles of Jurisprudence held higher importance. The Muslims that had come to India had mostly come from these very countries, and naturally therefore, the coming of their leanings too was inevitable. As such all these sciences were included and were a part and parcel of the syllabi of this era in India.

Maulana Hakim Sayyid Abdul-Hayy Lakhnavi has fixed the following four periods of the old Indian curriculum:-

FIRST PERIOD

Its beginning should be taken from the seventh century Hijri and its end in the tenth at a time when the second period had begun. For more or less two hundred years the acquirement of the following disciplines was considered the standard of learning:-

Grammar, Syntax, Literature, Rhetoric, Fiqh, Principles of Fiqh, Logic, Scholastic Theology, Tasawwuf, Tafsir and Hadith.

It appears from the particulars of the Ulema of this class that Fiqh and Usul-e-Fiqh were considered the highest criterion of learning and merit in their period. In Hadith the study of Mashariqul-Anwar alone was considered sufficient, and for more understanding and expertise in Hadith the Masabih was the ultimate.

The peculiarities that are seen in the curriculum of this period were the result of the effective taste of the conquerors of India. The people who laid the throne of Islamic state in India had come from Ghazni and Ghaur. These were those places where proficiency in Fiqh and Usool-e-Fiqh was considered a diploma of distinction; the rank of jurisprudential traditions in these countries was very high.

SECOND PERIOD

In the late ninth century Hijri, Shaikh Abdullah and Shaikh Azizullah, in order to elevate the previous standard somewhat, introduced Qazi Udhad's books, Matale and Mawaqif, and Sakkaki's Miftahul Uloom in the syllabi.

In this period Mir Sayyid Sharif's disciples brought Sharh-e-Matal'e and Sharh-e-Mawaqif into vogue and Tafta Zani's disciples conventionalized Mutawwal, Mukhtasarul Ma'ani, Talweeh and Sharh-e-Aqa'id-e-Nasafi.

Moreover, in this period Sharh-e-Waqaya and Sharh-e-Jami were also introduced in the syllabus.

In the end of this period Shaikh Abdul-Haq Muhaddith Dehelvi, having studied the science of Hadith under the instruction of the Ulema of the two holy cities (Mecca and Madina), tried to encourage and bring into limelight the study of the science of Hadith. After him his son, Shaikh Nurul -Haq, also tried to spread the study of Hadith but did not meet with success.

 It appears from the chronicles of the eminent Ulema of this period that even as Sadra and Shams-e-Bazigha are held to be the ultimate books in our own time, Sukkaki's Miftahul-Uloom and Qazi 'Udhad's Matal'e and Mawaqif were considered the ultimate books in their period. Badauni, while writing the chronicles of the Ulema of this era, has hinted at this here and there.

THIRD PERIOD

The people's aspirations had increased due to the change that took place in the syllabus of the second period and now they were wishing to raise the standard of proficiency still further. Mir Fathullah came to India from Shiraz. Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomed him by awarding him the title of Udhadul-Mulk. He made some new additions to the previous syllabi which the Ulema readily accepted.

Hazrat Shah Waliullah who was the last but the most illustrious divine of this era he went to the holy cities (Mecca and Madina) and, sojourning there for fourteen months, he completed the study of the science of Hadith under the instruction of Shaikh Abu Tahir Kurdi. On returning to India he disseminated it so assiduously that the effects thereof are still extant. Hazrat Shah Waliullah and his able sons and descendants, by their effort and endeavor, made the teaching and imparting of the Sihah Sitta an integral part of the syllabus.

Shah Sahib had structured a new course of study also. But in those days the centre of gravity of knowledge had shifted from Delhi to Lucknow. Moreover the new relation that had developed with Iran during the period of Humayun and Akbar had gradually produced a new change in the academic taste in India. Through the influence of the Iranian nobles and Ulema of the Mughal Court, Logic and Philosophy, which were ab initio considered the highest criterion of learning in Iran, were gaining superiority, slowly but steadily, over other sciences; and hence Shah Sahib's restructuring of the course could not gain general popularity.

FOURTH PERIOD

The fourth period began from the twelfth century Hijri. Its founder was Mulla Nizamuddin Sahalvi, who was contemporary of Hazrat Shah Waliullah. The curriculum known as "Dars-e Nizami", which is current today in all the Arabic schools, is a relic from him. Adding something more to the syllabi of the third period, Mulla Nizamuddin prepared a new syllabus.

The great peculiarity of this syllabus is that more attention has been paid in it to the creation of depth of insight and power of reading in the student, and although immediately after the completion of this course proficiency is not acquired in any particular subject, this much ability is surely created that, through one's own independent reading and labor, one may acquire proficiency in any subject of one's liking. The standard of Hadith and Tafsir in this course too is not much high, and of literature there is included no book at all.

In the middle of the thirteenth century Hijri there were three centers of thought of education in India: Delhi, Lucknow and Khairabad. Though the syllabi of the three were somewhat common, the points of view of all the three were different. More attention was being paid to Hadith and Tafsir in Delhi. Hazrat Shah Waliullah's family was assiduously busy in the dissemination and teaching of the Quran and the Sunnah, and the noetics were of a secondary position. In Lucknow the old seventh century Hijri tenor was dominant over the Ulema of Farangimahal: Fiqh and Principles of Fiqh had had more importance in their centre. In Tafsir, Jalalayn and Baizavi, and in Hadith, Mishkatul-Masabih alone, were considered sufficient. The academic subject at the Khairabad centre was virtually restricted to logic and philosophy; these subjects were taught with such care and assuduity that the teaching of all other sciences had almost become eclipsed before them.

 THE CURRICULUM OF DARUL ULOOM

 In the second half of the thirteenth century Hijri the educational centrality of Delhi and Khairabad had come to an end; however, some light of knowledge was still lingering in Lucknow. Although the centrality of these places had ended, the distinctive peculiarities of all these three centers were extant more or less, in all the Arabic schools of India.

Darul Uloom Deoband, has not only preserved the greatness of these sciences but has also played an important role in developing them. The peculiarities of all these three places have been gathered in the syllabus of Darul Uloom and the syllabus thus prepared with their amalgamation has been in force generally for more or less. a century in all the Arabic schools in the country. At some places other modern syllabi are also current. Amongst such seminaries the position of Nadvatul-Ulama Lucknow, is most conspicuous, but this type of syllabus is not very common.

Inspire of the afire-said comprehensiveness of the syllabus of Darul Uloom even as changes and alterations have taken place in the syllabi in every period as per the demands of the age, similar elimination and addition has been done, in accordance with the zeitgeist, from time to time, in the syllabus of Darul Uloom also in which, along with the religious sciences, contemporary sciences and economic necessities too, on the whole, have been paid attention to endeavoring to make it more and more useful.

The present syllabus consists of four stages: Primary, Middle, High, Mastery (Post-graduate stage).

According to the rules of Darul Uloom, the completion of the primary course is necessary for reaching the “Arabic Classes”.

The post-graduate class is not compulsory; if the student wants to acquire mastery in any subject or topic, he can take admission in the post-graduate class and continue his education. The curriculum of Darul Uloom Deoband for Arabic classes and Post-graduate, as detailed below, consists of the following arts and sciences and books:—

THE EIGHT-YEAR COURSE OF THE ARABIC CLASSES

FIRST YEAR

Subject

Books

Bio Graph of Prophet (syrat)

Syrat-e-Khatimul Anbiya (By: Mufti Md. Shafi)

Conjugation-Grammar (Sarf)

Arabic Primer; Mizanus-Sarf and Munsha'ib

 (complete); Panj Ganj (complete

Syntax (Nahv

Memorizing of Nahv-e-Mir (complete); Sharh-e- Mi'ata A'mil (complete).

Arabic Literature

Miftahul Arabia Part 1,2, & Alqira'atul Waziha (1)

Logic

Taiseer al-Mantiq

Chirography

 (Khush-navisi)

Correct writing and Dictation

Cantillation: (Tajvid)

Exercise in cant illation in the first quarter of the Para-e-Amm

 

SECOND YEAR

Subject

Books

Conjugation-Grammar (Sarf)

Ilmus Segha & Fusool-e-Akbari

Syntax (Nahv

Hidaytun Nahv (complete) & Kafiya (chapter: Fail & Harf)

Arabic Literature

Alqira'atul Waziha (2) & Nafhatul Adab

Jurisprudence: (Fiqh)

Noorul Izah & Qudoori (To Haj chapter)

Logic

A'san Mantiq & Mirqat

Chirography (Khush-navisi)

Correct writing and Dictation

Cantillation: (Tajvid)

Jamalul Qra'an & Exercise in cant illation of the Para-e-Amm

 

THIRD YEAR

Subject

Books

Quranic Exegesis

Tarjumatul Quran (From Sura-e-Qaf to end)

Jurisprudence: (Fiqh)

Qudoori (From Kitabul Boyoo to end)

Syntax (Nahv)

Sharah Shuzuruz Zahab (complete)

Arabic Literature

Nafhatul Arab & Alqira'tul Waziha (3)

Hadith

Mishkatul A'thar

Logic

Shrah Tahzeeb (complete)

Islami Akhlaque

Talimul Muta'allim

Cantillation: (Tajvid)

Exercise in cant illation of the five Para

External study

Tareekh Millat (Khilafat-e-Rashida)

 

FOURTH YEAR

Subject

Books

Quranic Exegesis

Tarjumatul Quran (From Sura-e-Yousuf to Qaf)

Jurisprudence: (Fiqh)

Sharah Wiqayah (Part 1 coml. & part 2 up to Itaque)

Principles of Jurisprudence

Tasheelul Usool Arabi & Usoolus Shasi

Rhetorics

Darusul Balaghah (complete)

Hadith

Alfiyatul Hadith

Logic

Qutbi (complete)

History

Khilafat-e-Bani Umayya, Abbasiya, Turkiya (By: zamullah Shahabi)

Cantillation: (Tajvid)

Exercise in cant illation of the five Para

Modern Sciences

Sciences of Madaniyyat, Geography of the Arab Peninsula and other Islamic countries.

 

FIFTH YEAR

Subject

Books

Quranic Exegesis

Tarjumatul Quran (From beginning up to Sura-e-Hood)

Jurisprudence: (Fiqh)

Hidaya Part 1 (complete)

Principles of Jurisprudence

Noorul Anwar up to Sunnah & Matan Alminar ( form Kitabus Sunnah up to end)

Rhetorics

Mukhtasarul Ma'ani 1st subject & Talkhisul Miftah (2nd & 3rd Subject)

Beliefs (Aqa'id)

Aqidatut Tahavi

Logic

Sullamul Uloom (up to subject of Shartiyat)

Arabic Literature

Muqamat ( up to 15 Muqama)

Cantillation: (Tajvid)

Exercise in cant illation of the five Para

External study

History of Indians Kings (up to 1947 A.D.)

 

SIXTH YEAR

Subject

Books

Tafsir

Tafsir Jalalayn (complete)

Jurisprudence: (Fiqh)

Hidaya Part 2 (complete with Itaque subject)

Principles of Tafsir & Jurisprudence

Alfauzul Kabeer & Husamy (complete)

Arabic Literature

Deevan-e-Mutanabbi (appointed chapter) & Deewan-e-Himasa (Babul Adab)

Philosophy

Mabadiul Falsafa & Mabazi (Complete)

Cantillation: (Tajvid)

Exercise in cant illation of the five Para

Study of Sirat

Asahhus Siyer

 

SEVENTH YEAR

Subject

Books

Hadith

Mishkat, Sharah Nukhba & Muqadma Shaikh Abdul-Haque

Jurisprudence: (Fiqh

Hidaya Part 3/4

Aqa'ed

Shrah Aqa'ed

Fra'iz

Sirajy

Cantillation: (Tajvid)

Exercise in cant illation of the five Para

External Study

Al-Mazahibul Islamia Urdu (Shaikh Abu Zahra )

 

EIGHTH YEAR (Daura-e-Hadith)

Subject

Books

Hadith

Bukhari Sharif  (Complete)

Hadith

Muslim Sharif  (Complete)

Hadith

Tirmizi Sharif  (Complete)

Hadith

Abu Da'ud Sharif  (Complete)

Hadith

Nasa'i Sharif  (Complete)

Hadith

Ibn-e-Maja Sharif  (Complete)

Hadith

Tahavi Sharif  (Complete)

Hadith

Shama'il Tirmizi Sharif  (Complete)

Hadith

Mu'atta Imam Malik  (Complete)

Hadith

Mu'atta Imam Mohammad (Complete)

External

Tajvid

Note:   After the successful completion of this 8-year course of the Arabic classes the student becomes eligible for receiving the graduate degree (Sanad-e-Faraghat) of Darul Uloom.

 POST-GRADUATE CLASSES

Mastery in Tafsir

Subject

Books

Tafsir

Tafsir Ibn-e-Kathir (Sura Saffat up to sura Najam)

Tafsir

Tafsir Ibn-e-Kathir  (Para 17 up to last Quran)

Tafsir

Baizavi  (Sura A'al-e-Imran up to sura A'araf)

Tafsir

Baizavi  (Sura-e-Baqra)

Usool-e-Tafsir

Manahilul Irfan  (some chapter)

Usool-e-Tafsir

Sabiluri Rishad

 

Mastery in Theology

Subject

Books

Hikmat-e-Shariyah

Hujjazrullah-il-Baligha

Ilm-e-Kalam

Musamira

Usool-e-Hadith

Muqadma ibne Salah

Fiqh

Al-Ashbah Wannazair

Usool-e-Fiqh

Musallemus Saboot

Usool-e-Fiqh

Sabilur Rishad

 

Mastery in Fiqh

Subject

Books

Faraiz

Siraji  (with training)

Ifta

Uqood Rasm-il-Mufti

Qawaid

Al-Ashbah Wannazair

Qawaid

Qawaid-ul-Fiqh

Fiqh

Durr-e-Mukhtar (Nikah, Talaq, Waqf etc)

Ifta

Tamreen-e-Fatwa

 

Mastery in Literature

Subject

Books

Prose

Asalibul Insha

Prose

An-Nathrul Jadid

Poetry

Deevan-e-Hemasa, Sab'a Mu'allaqa

History

Tareekh-ul-Adab-il-Arabi

Balaghat

Albalaghatul Waziha

Insha

Insha-e-Arabi

External Study

Hiyati, Al-iyam, Abarat, Abqriyat

 

Mastery in Literature (contd.)

Subject

Books

New Prose

Rijal minat Tareekh (P.1 up to 40)

Min Nafahat-il-Hiram (P.1up to 50)

Hayati  (P. 1 up to 60)

Old Prose

Wafayatul Aayan  (Some chapter)

Kitabul Bukhla (Part 1)

Kalila w Dimna

Insha

Al-Insha-ul-Arabi

Tabirat

200 Tabirats clips from Arabic news papers and magazines. `

Maqala

Arabic article in 100 pages.

 

Mastery in Fiqh (Contd.)

Subject

Books

Usool

Muqadma Durre Mukhtar, Rasmul Mufti

Fatwa writing

Training of Fatwa writing in light of Rasmul

Summary of selected chapters

Summary of selected chapters from Raddul Muhtar, Al-Bahrur Ra’ique, Fathul Qadeer, Al-ashbah wan Naza’ir (3rd subject) & another chapters from Shami.

Introduction of books on Fatawa

Introduction of Fatawa’s books and their specialization.

Tamreen-e-Fatawa

Learning of Fatwa writing.

 

Another PG Courses

Mastery in Training for Teaching (B-ed), Mastery in Tajweed w Qira’at, Mastery in Calligraphy, Mastery in Journalism, Mastery in Dawah, Mastery in Computer, Mastery in English literature etc.

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